Sexual Harassment


Abstract

This research study is based on focusing on the issue of preventive measures that needs to be implemented sexual harassment at events mainly like in the workplace. The primary approach adopted for this study will be related to carrying out survey and interviews to gain direct insight on the topic of sexual harassment. The research will also be looking at various studies and articles under the context of literature review which are all related to intervention in eliminating workplace harassment. This research study will be based on the mix method approach by collecting data from both primary and secondary means.

The findings of these studies are then has been analysed for making preventive strategies against sexual harassment in various aspect mainly in workplaces. Preventive measures which are provided by various studies and primary resources is mainly based on creating organisational policy that is directly related with making strict regulation related to sexual harassment. The recommendation are also made in developing a awareness plan which provides clear understanding to the issue and also create a collaborative platform which help in eliminating the issue by involving every member working in the organisational working structure.

Contents

Topic 3

Introduction 3

Literature Review 4

Methodology 8

Mix Method Approach 8

Issues 10

Ethical Considerations 10

Project Activity 11

Project Findings 12

Interview Responses 12

Survey Response 14

Discussion 18

Conclusion 19

Recommendation 19

Reference 21

Appendices 24

Interview Questions 24

Survey Questionnaire: 25

Sexual Harassment

Topic

The proposed topic for this research project is:

“Measures needed to prevent sexual harassment at Workplace”

Introduction

This paper will carry out comprehensive study on the topic of taking preventive measures to eliminate sexual harassment at events in general and particularly at workplace. In contemporary working, organisational culture are base on respecting values and taking high consideration towards the dignity of every employee mainly the women employee members. The maintaining of business culture based on respecting values is also necessary for business organisation to achieve its objective of growth and progress in the long term. The culture of preventing work related issues mainly sexual harassment in the business organisation also benefits in terms of improving employee’s performance which is necessary to improve the overall business infrastructure.

Workplace issues like sexual harassment in contemporary business practice are considered as a brunt on effective working and culture of business environment. The sexual harassment influence personal relation between employees in a negative manner which also affects the overall fundamental of business organisation to create a safe and secure working environment within the business infrastructure. This paper will focus on the area of major causes or factor that leads toward sexual harassment and carry out research in both primary and secondary approach to develop a working framework that helps in developing policies related to workplace area mainly to prevent the problem of sexual harassment. This research will also help me in my future academics in terms of following a working framework which is necessary to carry out a valid and reliable research. This research will also help me in my future career area by helping me in getting a clear insight on working ethics that must be followed to maintain dignity at work with practice related to prevention of the sexual harassment at work (Arbeit, 2017).

Literature Review

Sexual harassment at workplace is highly related to creating an environment which influences the working of employees in a negative way with creating a atmosphere that is highly hostile and suspicious between various members of the organisations. The sexual harassment also affects the working of employee by lowering their motivation and morale which affects the overall efficiency with also impact areas that affects the business achievement of its goals in the long term. The sexual harassment in the business organisation is also considered as main element which leads towards greater rate of absenteeism and also increases the employee turnover within the business organisation. The organisation corporate image also gets affects which is mainly due to cause of sexual harassment which can increase if remains unchecked and may lead to legal pursuit which is the main distraction for any business organisation to achieve its objective in a sustainable manner. The sexual harassment in the workplace can be from various aspects like making sexist comment or joke which is inappropriate for the person to whom it is directed. The sexual harassment is not just limited to physical touching or violence but also for activities that are against business ethics and cannot be accepted as a legal act in the working environment of the business culture (Klein, et.al, 2018).

In contemporary business practice due to high reporting and incidents of sexual harassment various legislation have been developed at various business organisation that implements the anti-sexual harassment as a corporate culture. This culture is practice under the context of standard operating procedure and code of ethics which defines the severity of action to be taken against any action which may affects the dignity of a person. The anti-sexual harassment framework as an organisational practice is mainly related to improving the working infrastructure of organisation with an environment that is based on high cohesion and collaboration between every employee of the business. (Dills, et.al, 2016).

The current rules and regulation that are developed for preventing sexual harassment incidents at workplace provides consideration to various stakeholders like employers, educators and housing service provider to develop an environment which is free from any type of harassment. The code of conduct related to preventive measures for sexual harassment should be based on clearly defining every stakeholder with comprehensively determining the practice that needs to be followed in the workplace.

The policies should also be clearly communicated to every employee member of the organisation which helps them in gaining knowledge about their rights and action needed to be taken if they face situation that is related to the act of harassment. The policy should also be defined in a manner that provide a clear insight on the role and responsibility provided to various stakeholder mainly the management in terms of alleged case of sexual harassment take place. Preventive measures should also be implemented by clearly defining the aspect and working structure that will be related to any complains that arises under the context of sexual harassment.  Working framework should also be dealt in an efficient and prompt manner to enhance the element of making the rules and regulation stricter, effective and complied (Khoshknab, et.al, 2015).

The main aspect of creating a culture that promotes anti harassment measures is based on increasing awareness and presence of anti-sexual harassment policy. Policies related to the issue of harassment must be communicated to every employee in order to provide them sense of responsibility to help in promoting of culture is respect dignity of every member of the organisation. The implementation of anti-sexual harassment measures also include working framework that is related to resolution of complaints that arises under the context of sexual harassment (Becton, et.al, 2017).

Active measures to implement working policy that benefits in preventing sexual harassment working place is mainly related to the practice of providing the policy in a communicable manner to every member of the organisation in a prompt manner when they are develop and introduce. The measures should also be based on enhancing the awareness of employees related to practice that needs to be carried out under the paradigm of preventing sexual harassment. The awareness should be based on training and orientation material that clearly points toward action and behaviour that are not acceptable as professional code of conduct. Awareness plan should also be related to increasing the role that a member has to play when faced by issue related to harassment. Rights should also be clearly defines to each member so they have clear insight on the actions that must be taken to prevent such incidents (Flood, 2015).

The preventive measure should also be based on the providing training program mainly to the employees that work in the post that are responsible for preventing sexual harassment in the business environment. The training should be based on providing a clear concept of policies that are in place and how to implement with focuses on the element of focusing on the right of every person. This effective preventive measure under the context of anti-sexual harassment policy must also focuses on the element of eliminating harm to any employee with creating direct liability for violator in order to imply the policy under the consideration to promotion of equality within the business organisations. Preventing sexual harassment also help in promoting policies related to diversity within the business infrastructure where every employee work in a safe and secure environment (Gurung, et.al, 2016).

The main preventive measure taken under the context of developing working framework for anti-sexual harassment policy should be based on strict implementation of all regulation without tolerating any type of harassment. A clear working Human Rights code must be displayed in an area where every person can easily view and access the regulation. The Code should clearly define the notion of Sexual harassment with focus on preventive measures and rights with responsibility are provided to every employee in order to prevent such measures. A clear statement should also be defined in the code which is based on serious action that will be taking in case of any violation a happens on the base of harassment or discrimination (Tirtawinata, 2016).

Methodology

Mix Method Approach

The approach that is adopted to gather relevant information and data for the whole research study is based on the mix method approach.  The mix method research process is based on carrying out a working process that is based on systematic integration of data that are in quantitative and quantitative form. This method enhances the element of validity for any research by providing information from sources that are relevant and reliable with also generating insight on issues that were not address in the secondary sources but are taken up by the author in the form of conducting research o personal basis (Hilda, et.al, 2015).

The mix method approach is based on a working aspect that is related with that of the integrating two or more types of data and create a more utilisation of data available in the quantitative and qualitative form. The mix method approach also enhances the element of collecting data that is more relevant, specific and applicable at the same time and requires better analysis to have a clear insight on topic for which the research has been taken. The evaluation of both forms of data also provides opportunity to research to use mix method in order to determine a working framework which can be implemented in practical manner from the aspect of having better knowledge about the subject. The mix method approach is also related to improves the effectiveness of the whole research study that is related with generating better result in terms of better quality, cost efficient  and provides consideration for practical implementation of knowledge that is gain during the whole research process.

The mix method approach adopted in this research is due to factor of collecting data in the form of survey questionnaire and interview questions. The survey questionnaire will be in closed ended form that is related with qualitative data while the interview conducted will be based on open end questions related with qualitative data. The mix method approach also provides consideration to collect and analysed data according to method define for each type of the study. The mix method approach also helps in making a collecting a sufficient amount of sample size for both quantitative and qualitative approach that adds validity to the whole research process (Connolly, et.al, 2015).

 

 

Issues

The main issue related to this whole research is from the triangulation means of collecting data for the study. The triangulation method is based on collecting data with more than one approach on the same subject. This causes the whole research study to get lengthy which causes delay in completion of the research study. The utilisation of variety of sample also makes the whole process more complex that can also affect the reliability of the whole research process. The data collection means in mix method can also add complication to the whole research study when a quantitative data contradicts with the qualitative data or vice versa (de Lijster, et.al, 2016).

The main issue which is faced in this research study to gather data related to the taking preventive measures from triangulation means is from the time factor. The expected time to collect data was developed on 20 days but was collected in 28 days. The issue is also faced from the aspect of less response received for expected which also limits the application and relevancy that can be applied when all the response received were lower than the expected.

Ethical Considerations

The ethical consideration to this research study is mainly based on keeping the confidentiality of every respondent. This ethical aspect is practiced under the context of taking consent of every participant with also informing them about the aspect for which the data is being gathered. The ethical consideration is practice in this study by keeping anonymity for every respondent in order to maintain the security of every respondent. The ethical consideration is also followed by mentioning any article that is used to facilitate the research is by mentioning them in the bibliography and properly acknowledging their work that is used as a secondary data for the research study mainly in the literature review part of the study (Bala, 2016).

Project Activity

The research process for the study is based collecting data by two primary means that are survey questionnaire and interviews. This also helps in covering both the quantitative and qualitative means for the primary source which help in getting in-depth analysis of the whole topic for which the research has been conducted.

The primary data in the form of survey questionnaire was gathered online and was expected to collected 100 or above response but only able to get 39 responses. The qualitative data in the form of interview questions also does not provide relevant response as it was intended to get response from 10 working women but only be able to gather from 02 women due to high level of reluctance face from respondents to talk over the subject. This is mainly due to the factor of gaining response from only working women in order to get a clear insight on the problem of preventive measures that needs to be considered for implementing anti-sexual harassment policy with the business infrastructure.

The primary research in the form of survey questionnaire however helps in getting a clear image in the existence of workplace harassment that must be considered as a corporate issue. The 39 response that received under the context of survey is based on working women belonging to different field like media, social and health care, teaching, banking and others. This greatly helps in getting a clear image of problem that exists in the form of sexual harassment which prevails in every profession. This also helps in getting clear overview of women facing sexual issues as a common problem irrespective of their position in the organisation which can be in the form of labour workforce or management position.

The research in the form of interview question also face difficulty due to less cooperative nature of women with resistance to talk on the particular topic related to sexual harassment. This provides consideration to the gravity of the issue that existed and need effective and collaborative measures in order to take preventive measures against such issue that is mainly related to workplace. This enable the researcher to collected response from only two working ladies in which on belongs to junior employee position while the other is her respective manager (McDonald, et.al, 2016).

Project Findings

The project data collected is mainly in two forms i.e. quantitative and qualitative from survey and interview respectively. The findings are discussed as below from the data that is collected mainly under the context of primary research and provide understanding of the issue that exist in real context.

Interview Responses

The finding related to interview question when asked for question 1 that is related to facing of sexual harassment or asked sexual favour at work both respondents nodded in affirmative that gives clear idea of existence of problem for women belonging to every category in the organisation.

Question 02 was related to reaction and particular feeling at the time for which the respondent 1 who work in junior position answer by confronting the harasser and threatening to complain while the woman manager response was to avoid the situation and feel insecurity about her.

The third response was related to policy followed in the organisation to prevent sexual harassment was responded by the 01 respondent to have a well planned code of ethic that must be followed by every employee while the second respondent provides knowledge about being present of regulation but not followed.

The fourth question was related to raising the matter and making an official complaint the first respondent provides answer to take matter with the seniors but does not make an official complain. The 02 respondent provides answer to avoid the situation and also does not make complain due to aspect of involving in a worse situation due to absence of implementing of anti-harassment policy (Silbaugh, 2015).

The last question was related to implementation strategy to prevent workplace harassment for which the respondent 01 answered by formation of a task force which is based on women employee and directly works under management to keep it free from any pressure. The second respondent who is works in the managerial position provides response to involve law enforcing agencies and provide support to victim in making a legal petition against violator (Crain, et.al, 2019).

 

 

Survey Response

The finding of the survey that has been conducted online has been mentioned as below:

 

The first question was related to educational background of the working women from which the data has been gathered. Out of 39, 10 have completed high school, 21 of them have graduate degree, 03 completed their post-graduation background while 05 have other higher background.

 

When respondents were asked about their position in the company 17 were working ina upper management positions, while 06 are at mid level, lower include 07 and 09 are workers.

 

When asked about they ever faced sexual harassment 22 respondent in affirmative while 17 answers were in negative.

Question related to more exploitation of women at workplace collects answer when 37 of the women agreed to being exploited while 02 do not agree.

 

The question related to attitude based on male dominancy is the main contributor of sexual harassment at workplace collects answer in positive note from 30 respondents while 09 gives does not consider male dominancy as the element.

When asked about implementation of prevention policies in organisation 14 agrees to being followed in the organisation while 25 does not see any implementation which helps in preventing sexual harassment at work.

 

When asked about the current effectiveness of organisational structure to prevent harassment at workplace 03 agrees to the notion while 36 does not agreed with current structure.

 

 

Discussion

Implementing anti-sexual harassment policy is also based on the aspect of developing a working procedure by the management of the organisation that helps in fair dealing of cases that may be related to sexual harassment by third parties like customers. These procedures should be based on action in which the policy has to be practiced in order to clearly provided insight on behaviour by employee as a response to any type of harassment.  The procedure should also be based on making a legal and official action in case of a serious problem which should be based on inclusion of management to work on such incidents. The working procedure should also be based on taking appropriate measures that help in clearly assessing the situation and provide a clear insight on implementing preventive or remedial actions (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2018).

Preventive measures for sexual harassment is based on the context of seriously dealing with any type of issue that take place and must be respond in a prompt manner to affectively take action according to regulation. The dealing should also be applied by development of a working mechanism related to complain in which total ethics must be followed as to seriously take the matter in a confidential manner without revealing the identity of the victim. The working procedure should also be free from any type of biasness or prejudices that may affect the spirit of complain and may generate negative outcome for the victim in the form of disciplinary actions and reprisal (Cantalupo, et.al, 2017).

 

 

Conclusion

In contemporary organisational practice in order to promote diversity and safety at work place policies and regulation must be developed in order to safeguard rights and dignity of every employee. The working policy in order to take preventive measures against sexual harassment is should be based on action that helps in preventing any type of verbal or physical action which is based on intention of sexuality. The preventive measure also needs to be considered for every employee in capacity of head, manager or employee working in the business organisation. Preventive measure must clearly define the prohibition of acts that are intolerable and violated basic dignity of a human respect. The preventive measures should strictly define the working framework for any act that is based on physical and verbal in nature and causes tease to victim with intention of sexuality (Zewude, et.al, 2016).

Recommendation

The research study provides a clear insight on preventive measures that must be taken in order to implement a safe and secure working environment which is free from any type of violation specifically the sexual harassment.

Due to changing business scenarios current preventive measures not address the issue in its truly which provides consideration for making certain recommendation in order to effectively implement preventive policies related to sexual harassment. The main implication regards to preventive measure id from development of an effective implementation based on zero tolerance corporate policy. Determination of a working framework that helps in taking action in a timely manner to prevent any type of violation related to behaviour that is aggressive or unwelcome as a professional practice. The policy related to strict action in terms of terminating, filing criminal petition against the offender also helps in mitigating the risk of sexual harassment within the business environment (Shaw, et.al, 2018).

The recommendation is also made in area of creating a platform that is related with reporting of any behaviour that is based on sexuality. The development of a complain portal that helps in actively listening to complain and providing employee with information on their rights to take actions against the violator. The recommendation is also made for increasing awareness about certain behaviour that is related to sexual harassment (Fortney, 2018).

A feedback system is also recommended to address issue faced by the complainer and giving them adequate feedback on reporting the incident.

Recommendation is also made to create a fair system to actively practice the preventive measures in their true spirit while refraining from any act that may do favour to the victim or causes unjust biasness towards the suspect.

Recommendation is also provided under the context of making a policy that strongly implement  the practice based on protecting the privacy and refraining from any information.

 

 

Reference

Arbeit, M.R., 2017. “Make Sure You’re Not Getting Yourself in Trouble:” Building Sexual Relationships and Preventing Sexual Violence at the US Military Academy at West Point. The Journal of Sex Research, 54(8), pp.949-961.

Bala, S., 2016. Gender dimensions at work and employment: a case of sexual harassment. Noida: VV Giri National Labour Institute.

Becton, J.B., Gilstrap, J.B. and Forsyth, M., 2017. Preventing and correcting workplace harassment: Guidelines for employers. Business Horizons, 60(1), pp.101-111.

Cantalupo, N.C. and Kidder, W.C., 2017. Mapping the Title IX iceberg: Sexual harassment (mostly) in graduate school by college faculty. Journal of Legal Education, 66(4), pp.850-881.

Connolly, J., Josephson, W., Schnoll, J., Simkins-Strong, E., Pepler, D., MacPherson, A., Weiser, J., Moran, M. and Jiang, D., 2015. Evaluation of a youth-led program for preventing bullying, sexual harassment, and dating aggression in middle schools. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 35(3), pp.403-434.

Crain, M. and Matheny, K., 2019. Sexual Harassment and Solidarity. Geo. Wash. L. Rev., 87, p.56.

de Lijster, G.P., Felten, H., Kok, G. and Kocken, P.L., 2016. Effects of an interactive school-based program for preventing adolescent sexual harassment: a cluster-randomized controlled evaluation study. Journal of youth and adolescence, 45(5), pp.874-886.

Dills, J., Fowler, D. and Payne, G., 2016. Sexual violence on campus: Strategies for prevention.

Flood, M., 2015. Current practices to preventing sexual and intimate partner violence. Critical issues on violence against women: International perspectives and promising strategies, pp.209-220.

Fortney, S.S., 2018. Preventing Sexual Harassment and Misconduct in Higher Education: How Lawyers Should Assist Universities in Fortifying Ethical Infrastructure. Minn. L. Rev. Headnotes, 103, p.28.

Gurung, A., Priyadarshini, S. and Margaret, B.E., 2016. Perception of sexual harassment among the undergraduate students. Manipal Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences (MJNHS), 2(1), pp.46-51.

Hilda, N.L. and Pilot, M., 2015. Reporting and preventing sexual assault among students at a selected university in South Africa. Journal of Social Sciences, 44(1), pp.95-100.

Khoshknab, M.F., Oskouie, F., Ghazanfari, N., Najafi, F., Tamizi, Z., Afshani, S. and Azadi, G., 2015. The frequency, contributing and preventive factors of harassment towards health professionals in Iran. International journal of community based nursing and midwifery, 3(3), p.156.

Klein, J.S., Pappas, N.J. and Ramsini, L.K., 2018. Strategies for Preventing Sexual Harassment. NY Business Law Journal, p.87.

McDonald, P., Charlesworth, S. and Graham, T., 2016. Action or inaction: Bystander intervention in workplace sexual harassment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(5), pp.548-566.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2018. Sexual harassment of women: climate, culture, and consequences in academic sciences, engineering, and medicine. National Academies Press.

Shaw, E., Hegewisch, A. and Hess, C., 2018. Sexual harassment and assault at work: Understanding the costs. Institute for Women’s Policy Research Publication, IWPR B, 376.

Silbaugh, K., 2015. Reactive to proactive: Title IX’s unrealized capacity to prevent campus sexual assault. BUL Rev., 95, p.1049.

Tirtawinata, C.M., 2016. Importance of sex education since early age for preventing sexual harassment. Humaniora, 7(2), pp.201-209.

Zewude, B.T. and Ashine, K.M., 2016. Student Attitude towards on Sexual Harassment: The Case of Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(34), pp.76-80.

 

 

Appendices
Interview Questions

Q1) Have you ever been sexually harassed or asked for sexual favour at workplace?

Q2) What was your reaction and how do you feel in the particular situation?

Q3) What policies do your company has in place to prevent sexual harassment?

Q4) Do you considered taking the matter to higher management and make an official complain?

Q5) What measures do you consider must be implemented as organisational policy which helps in preventing sexual harassment at work?

 

 

Survey Questionnaire:

Kindly only answer when you are working women…

Q.1 EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

High School                                                                            Graduation                           

Post-Graduation                                                                    Others

Q.2 Your level in the company:

Labour Worker                                                         Mid-Management

Lower Management                                                  Upper Management

Q.3 Have you ever been a victim of Sexual Harassment?

            Yes                                          No

Q.4 Do you feel women are more exploited in workplace due to their vulnerability?

Yes                                          No

Q.5 Do you think current attitude of male dominancy at workplace is the major reason of sexual harassment?

Yes                                          No

Q.6 Do you think policies against sexual harassment are truly followed in organisational working?

Yes                                          No

Q.7 Do you think current organisational structure is sufficient to address issue of sexual harassment against women?         

Yes                                          No

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.